Bismuth

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Attribution: Alchemist-hp

Animated Bismuth

History

From the German Weisse Masse, meaning white mass; later Wisuth and Bisemutum. In early times bismuth was confused with tin and lead. Claude Geoffroy the Younger showed it to be distinct from lead in 1753.

Sources

The most important ores are bismuthinite or bismuth glance and bismite. Peru, Japan, Mexico, Bolivia, and Canada are major bismuth producers. Much of the bismuth produced in the U.S. is obtained as a by-product in refining lead, copper, tin, silver, and gold ores.

Uses

"Bismanol" is a permanent magnet of high coercive force, made of MnBi, by the U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center. Bismuth expands 3.32% on solidification. This property makes bismuth alloys particularly suited to the making of sharp castings of objects subject to damage by high temperatures. With other metals such as tin, cadmium, etc., bismuth forms low-melting alloys which are extensively used for safety devices in fire detection and extinguishing systems. Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is finding use as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers. When bismuth is heated in air it burns with a blue flame, forming yellow fumes of the oxide. The metal is also used as a thermocoupling material, and has found application as a carrier for 235U or 233U fuel in nuclear reactors. Its soluble salts are characterized by forming unsoluble basic salts on the addition of water, a property sometimes used in detection work. Bismuth oxychloride is used extensively in cosmetics. Bismuth subnitrate and subcarbonate are used in medicine.

General Info

AtomicNumber
83
Symbol
Bi
Name
Bismuth

Atomic Info

Appearance
AtomicWeight
208.98040(1)
Color
9E4FB5
ElectronicConfiguration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
ElectronegativityInPauling
2.02
AtomicRadiusInPM
146
IonRadiusInPM
103 (+3)
VanDerWaalsRadiusInPM
IEinKJmol
703
EAinKJmol
-91
OxidationStates
-3, 3, 5
StandardState
solid
BondingType
metallic
MeltingPoint
544
BoilingPoint
1837
Density
9.78
State
Post-transition metal
DiscoveredYear
Ancient