Chlorine

Images

Image

Attribution: W. Oelen

Animated Chlorine

History

From the Greek word chloro, greenish yellow. Discovered in 1774 by Scheele, who thought it contained oxygen. Chlorine was named in 1810 by Davy, who insisted it was an element.

Sources

In nature it is found in the combined state only, chiefly with sodium as common salt (NaCl), carnallite, and sylvite.

Uses

Chlorine is widely used in making many everyday products. It is used for producing safe drinking water the world over. Even the smallest water supplies are now usually chlorinated.

It is also extensively used in the production of paper products, dyestuffs, textiles, petroleum products, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, food, solvents, paints, plastics, and many other consumer products.

Most of the chlorine produced is used in the manufacture of chlorinated compounds for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing. Further use is in the manufacture of chlorates, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and in the extraction of bromine.

Organic chemistry demands much from chlorine, both as an oxidizing agent and in substitution, since it often brings many desired properties in an organic compound when substituted for hydrogen, as in one form of synthetic rubber.

General Info

AtomicNumber
17
Symbol
Cl
Name
Chlorine

Atomic Info

Appearance
AtomicWeight
35.453(2)
Color
1FF01F
ElectronicConfiguration
[Ne] 3s2 3p5
ElectronegativityInPauling
3.16
AtomicRadiusInPM
99
IonRadiusInPM
181 (-1)
VanDerWaalsRadiusInPM
175
IEinKJmol
1251
EAinKJmol
-349
OxidationStates
-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
StandardState
gas
BondingType
covalent network
MeltingPoint
172
BoilingPoint
239
Density
0
State
Diatomic nonmetal
DiscoveredYear
1774