Copper

Images

Image

Attribution: Digon3

Animated Copper

History

From the Latin word cuprum, from the island of Cyprus. It is believed that copper has been mined for 5,000 years.

Sources

Copper occasionally occurs natively, and is found in many minerals such as cuprite, malachite, azurite, chalcopyrite, and bornite.

Large copper ore deposits are found in the U.S., Chile, Zambia, Zaire, Peru, and Canada. The most important copper ores are the sulfides, the oxides, and carbonates. From these, copper is obtained by smelting, leaching, and by electrolysis.

Uses

The electrical industry is one of the greatest users of copper. Iron's alloys -- brass and bronze -- are very important: all American coins are copper alloys and gun metals also contain copper.

Copper has wide use as an agricultural poison and as an algaecide in water purification. Copper compounds, such as Fehling's solution, are widely used in analytical chemistry tests for sugar.

General Info

AtomicNumber
29
Symbol
Cu
Name
Copper

Atomic Info

Appearance
AtomicWeight
63.546(3)
Color
C88033
ElectronicConfiguration
[Ar] 3d10 4s1
ElectronegativityInPauling
1.9
AtomicRadiusInPM
138
IonRadiusInPM
77 (+1)
VanDerWaalsRadiusInPM
140
IEinKJmol
746
EAinKJmol
-118
OxidationStates
1, 2, 3, 4
StandardState
solid
BondingType
metallic
MeltingPoint
1358
BoilingPoint
3200
Density
8.92
State
Transition metal
DiscoveredYear
Ancient