Erbium

Images

Image

Attribution: Tomihahndorf

Animated Erbium

History

Erbium, one of the so-called rare-earth elements on the lanthanide series, is found in the minerals mentioned under dysprosium. In 1842 Mosander separated "yttria" found in the mineral gadolinite, into three fractions which he called yttria, erbia, and terbia. The names erbia and terbia became confused in this early period. After 1860, Mosander's terbia was known as erbia, and after 1877, the earlier known erbia became terbia. The erbia of this period was later shown to consist of five oxides, now known as erbia, scandia, holmia, thulia and ytterbia. By 1905 Urbain and James independently succeeded in isolating fairly pure Er2O3. Klemm and Bommer first produced reasonably pure erbium metal in 1934 by reducing the anhydrous chloride with potassium vapor.

Uses

Erbium is finding nuclear and metallurgical uses. Added to vanadium, for example, erbium lowers the hardness and improves workability. Erbium oxide gives a pink color and has been used as a colorant in glasses and porcelain enamel glazes.

General Info

AtomicNumber
68
Symbol
Er
Name
Erbium

Atomic Info

Appearance
AtomicWeight
167.259(3)
Color
0
ElectronicConfiguration
[Xe] 4f12 6s2
ElectronegativityInPauling
1.24
AtomicRadiusInPM
IonRadiusInPM
89 (+3)
VanDerWaalsRadiusInPM
IEinKJmol
589
EAinKJmol
-50
OxidationStates
3
StandardState
solid
BondingType
metallic
MeltingPoint
1770
BoilingPoint
3141
Density
9.07
State
Lanthanide
DiscoveredYear
1842