Gallium

Images

Image

Attribution: foobar

Animated Gallium

History

From the Latin word Gallia, France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of "Lecoq," a cock. Predicted and described by Mendeleev as ekaaluminum, and discovered spectroscopically by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875, who in the same year obtained the free metal by electrolysis of a solution of the hydroxide in KOH.

Sources

Gallium is often found as a trace element in diaspore, sphalerite, germanite, bauxite, and coal. Some flue dusts from burning coal have been shown to contain as much 1.5 percent gallium.

Uses

Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass. It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors.

Magnesium gallate containing divalent impurities, such as Mn+2, is finding use in commercial ultraviolet-activated powder phosphors. Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light. Gallium readily alloys with most metals, and has been used as a component in low-melting alloys.

General Info

AtomicNumber
31
Symbol
Ga
Name
Gallium

Atomic Info

Appearance
AtomicWeight
69.723(1)
Color
C28F8F
ElectronicConfiguration
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
ElectronegativityInPauling
1.81
AtomicRadiusInPM
126
IonRadiusInPM
62 (+3)
VanDerWaalsRadiusInPM
187
IEinKJmol
579
EAinKJmol
-29
OxidationStates
1, 2, 3
StandardState
solid
BondingType
metallic
MeltingPoint
303
BoilingPoint
2477
Density
5.9
State
Post-transition metal
DiscoveredYear
1875