Nitrogen

Images

Image

Attribution: Cory Doctorow

Animated Nitrogen

History

From the Latin word nitrum, Greek Nitron, native soda; and genes, forming. Nitrogen was discovered by chemist and physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. He removed oxygen and carbon dioxide from air and showed that the residual gas would not support combustion or living organisms. At the same time there were other noted scientists working on the problem of nitrogen. These included Scheele, Cavendish, Priestley, and others. They called it "burnt" or" dephlogisticated air," which meant air without oxygen.

Sources

Nitrogen gas (N2) makes up 78.1% of the Earth’s air, by volume. The atmosphere of Mars, by comparison, is only 2.6% nitrogen. From an exhaustible source in our atmosphere, nitrogen gas can be obtained by liquefaction and fractional distillation. Nitrogen is found in all living systems as part of the makeup of biological compounds.

General Info

AtomicNumber
7
Symbol
N
Name
Nitrogen

Atomic Info

Appearance
AtomicWeight
14.0067(2)
Color
3050F8
ElectronicConfiguration
[He] 2s2 2p3
ElectronegativityInPauling
3.04
AtomicRadiusInPM
75
IonRadiusInPM
146 (-3)
VanDerWaalsRadiusInPM
155
IEinKJmol
1402
EAinKJmol
-7
OxidationStates
-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
StandardState
gas
BondingType
diatomic
MeltingPoint
63
BoilingPoint
77
Density
0
State
Diatomic nonmetal
DiscoveredYear
1772