Phosphorus

Images

Image

Attribution: Wikimedia commons

Animated Phosphorus

History

From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise. Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669 by preparing it from urine.

Sources

Never found free in nature, it is widely distributed in combination with minerals. Phosphate rock, which contains the mineral apatite, an impure tri-calcium phosphate, is an important source of the element. Large deposits are found in Russia, in Morocco, and in Florida, Tennessee, Utah, Idaho, and elsewhere.

Uses

In recent years, concentrated phosphoric acids, which may contain as much as 70% to 75% P2O5 content, have become of great importance to agriculture and farm production. World-wide demand for fertilizers has caused record phosphate production. Phosphates are used in the production of special glasses, such as those used for sodium lamps.

Bone-ash --calcium phosphate-- is used to create fine chinaware and to produce mono-calcium phosphate, used in baking powder.

Phosphorus is also important in the production of steels, phosphor bronze, and many other products. Trisodium phosphate is important as a cleaning agent, as a water softener, and for preventing boiler scale and corrosion of pipes and boiler tubes.

Phosphorus is also an essential ingredient of all cell protoplasm, nervous tissue, and bones.

General Info

AtomicNumber
15
Symbol
P
Name
Phosphorus

Atomic Info

Appearance
AtomicWeight
30.973762(2)
Color
FF8000
ElectronicConfiguration
[Ne] 3s2 3p3
ElectronegativityInPauling
2.19
AtomicRadiusInPM
106
IonRadiusInPM
44 (+3)
VanDerWaalsRadiusInPM
180
IEinKJmol
1012
EAinKJmol
-72
OxidationStates
-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
StandardState
solid
BondingType
covalent network
MeltingPoint
317
BoilingPoint
554
Density
1.82
State
Polyatomic nonmetal
DiscoveredYear
1669