Thulium

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Attribution: Alchemist-hp

Animated Thulium

History

Named after Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia. Discovered in 1879 by Cleve. Thulium occurs in small quantities along with other rare earths in a number of minerals. It is obtained commercially from monazite, which contains about 0.007% of the element. Thulium is the least abundant of the rare earth elements, but with new sources recently discovered, it is now considered to be about as rare as silver,gold, or cadmium.

Uses

Because of the relatively high price of the metal, thulium has not yet found many practical applications. 169Tm bombarded in a nuclear reactor can be used as a radiation source in portable X-ray equipment. 171Tm is potentially useful as an energy source. Natural thulium also has possible use in ferrites (ceramic magnetic materials) used in microwave equipment, and can be used for doping fiber lasers. As with other lanthanides, thulium has a low-to-moderate acute toxic rating. It should be handled with care.

General Info

AtomicNumber
69
Symbol
Tm
Name
Thulium

Atomic Info

Appearance
AtomicWeight
168.93421(2)
Color
00D452
ElectronicConfiguration
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
ElectronegativityInPauling
1.25
AtomicRadiusInPM
IonRadiusInPM
103 (+2)
VanDerWaalsRadiusInPM
IEinKJmol
597
EAinKJmol
-50
OxidationStates
2, 3
StandardState
solid
BondingType
metallic
MeltingPoint
1818
BoilingPoint
2223
Density
9.32
State
Lanthanide
DiscoveredYear
1879